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バカ! [01 Mar 2006|08:58am]
こんにちは!
げんきですか。
みんなさん、いまだに このブログをよむのか。
I hope so!
ごめんなさい、わたしは なまけのですね!

わたしのがくぎょうは いそがしかったですから、かきませんでした。
そして、 いしゅうかんににどは にほんごのテストがありました。

あのう。。。いまさら、 かきつずける。
わたしは がんばるですよ!




Hello!
How are you?
Everyone, are you still reading this blog?
I hope so!
I'm sorry, I'm such a lazy person, aren't I?

Because my schoolwork has kept me busy, I haven't written.
And, twice a week I’ve had Japanese tests.

After such a long time, I will continue writing!
I will try my best!
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Greetings and Introductions ~ Language #4 [11 Jan 2006|11:55pm]
Asking for personal information using question words

A: Asking about names and things using なん
おなまえは なんですか。アリスです。
What is your name? It's Alice.

キムさんは なんねんせいですか。
What year are you in, Kim-san?

さんねんせいです。
I'm a junior.


B:Asking about places using どこ and どちら
どちらから いらっしゃいましたか。(dough-cheer-ah kah-rah ee-ra-shyy-mash-ta-ka)
Where are you from? [literally: where did you come from?]

にほんから きました。
I'm from Japan. [literally: I came from Japan.]


やまだ: キムさんは どちらから いらっしゃいましたか。
Yamada: Kim-san, where are you from?

 キム: かんこくから きました。
Kim: I'm from Korea.

やまだ: そうですか。 なんねんせいですか。
Yamada: I see. What year are you in?

 キム: いちねんせいです。
Kim: First year.


-*-


○ なん、どこ、and どちら are question words. なん means what, and both どこ and  どちら mean where. どちら is more polite than どこ. To ask the name of a school, use どこ or どちら.

In Japanese, a question word is placed where the information would appear in the answer. A question word is not used as a topic or before the particle.

○ どちらから いらっしゃいましたか (Where are you from?) is a polite way of asking about someone's hometown, country, or state. どちらから きましたか is more informal. The particle から means from.

○ いらっしゃいました and きました are past tense forms of the verbs of いらっしゃいます and きます respectively; they both mean come. When responding to a question about your hometown, country, or state, always used  きました.

It is possible to ask the name of someone's school with どこ or どちら. 「やまださんのだいがくはどこですか。」is really a question about the name of Yamada-san's university and not its location, even though どこですか is used.
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Practice and Conversation #3 [12 Dec 2005|04:05pm]
はなして と みましょう 三
Practice and Conversation #3

01. Think of a friend. How would you tell another friend about this person? How would you introduce them using [noun の noun]?

example

わたしのともだちはナタリーさんです。
ナタリーさんのだいがくはファンシャーだいがくです。
ナタリーさんのせんこうはこうがくです。

02. You meet a student from another school. Introduce yourself by identifying your name, school, year, and major using [noun の noun].
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Greetings and Introductions ~ Language #3 [12 Dec 2005|01:46pm]
Recognizing the relationship between nouns with 'の'

やまださんはウエストサイドだいがくのがくせいです。
Yamada-san is a student at Westside University.

やまださんは = noun + particle [sentence topic]
ウエストサイドだいがくのがくせい = noun 1 + noun 2 [noun phrase]



わたしのともだちはりゅうがくせいです。
My friend is a foreign student.


たなか: はじめまして、ウエストサイドだいがくのたなかです。
Tanaka: How do you do? My name is Tanaka and I'm from Westside University.

きむら: はじめまして、りゅうがくせいセンターのきむらです。どうぞよろしく。たかなさんのせんこうはけいざいがくですか。
Kimura: How do you do? My name is Kimura and I'm from the International Student Centre. I'm pleased to meet you. Is your major economics, Tanaka-san?

たなか: いいえ。わたしのせんこうはこうがくです。
Tanaka: No. My major is engineering.


-*-

○ the particle の allowes the first noun to modify the second noun

○ の can convery a variety of relation ships between two nouns, such as possession ('s), group membership, location (of, in), and instrument; thus, interpretation depends on context

とうきょうだいがくのリーさん
Lee-san from Tokyo University

とうきょうだいがくのがくせい
student at Tokyo University

わたしのともだち
my friend

せんせいのほん
teacher's book; book written by the teacher

メキシコのうち
house in Mexico

にほんのほん
book about Japan; book from Japan

にほんごのほん
book written in Japanese; book about Japanese

ときょうのすずきさん
Suzuki-san who lives in Tokyo; Suzuki-san from Tokyo

○ the relationship called appositive can be also expressed with の

すずきさんのホストファミリー
Suzuki-san who is (my) host family

ホストファミリーのすずきさん
Suzuki's host family (host family of Suzuki)

order changes meaning!


○ in Japan, it is common to introduce oneself using the name of one's company, college, or university
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Practice and Conversation #2 [08 Dec 2005|03:29am]
はなして と みましょう 二
Practice and Conversation #2

Answer the following questions
- use ええ、そうです。 or いいえ、じゃありません/そうじゃないです。

example ~
がくせいですか。 ええ、そうです。



01: がっこうは オッタワのだいがくですか。
02: にねんせいですか。
03: せんこうはこうがくですか。
04: ちゅうがくじんですか。
05: ともだちは にほんじんですか。
06: せんせいは だいがくいんせいですか。
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Greetings and Introductions ~ Language #2 [08 Dec 2005|02:45am]
Language #2 ~ Asking はい/いいえ questions using ~は ~ですか。

Q: すずきさんですか。
Are you Suzuki-san?

A: はい、そうです。
Yes, I am.


Q: すずきさんは がうせいですか。
Is Suzuki-san a student?

A: ええ、そうです。
Yes, she is.

OR

いいえ、 そうじゃありません/じゃないです。
No, she isn't.

-*-


すずき: ありさかさんですか。
Suzuki: Are you Arisaka-san?

アリス: はい、 そうです。
Alice: Yes, I am.

すずき: ありさかさんは にほんじんですか。
Suzuki: Are you Japanese, Arisaka-san?

アリス: いいえ、そうじゃりません。 アメリカじんです。
Alice: No, I'm not. I'm American.

-*-


○ use はい、そうです。(Yes, I am/you are/it is/she is/he is/they are/we are) if the answer is affirmative

○ use いいえ、そうじゃありません/そうじゃないです。(No, I'm not/you aren't/it isn't/she isn't/he isn't/they aren't/ we aren't) if the answer is negative

○ そうじゃないです is stronger than そうじゃありません

○ while the Japanese pronoun あなた means you, it is not as commonly used as its English counterpart

○ instead of 'you', the person's name is used: アリスさんは がくせいですか。means either Are you a student, Alice? or Is Alice a student? depending on whom you are talking to

○ the topic is often omitted if it is clear from the context

○ the particle か [ka] is the particle used to mark a question
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Practice and Conversation #1 [08 Dec 2005|12:11am]
はなして と みましょう 一
Practice and Conversation #1

Introduce yourself. Tell someone about yourself using  X は Y です。
example ~

はじめまして。アンドレアです。どうぞよろしく。わたしはだいがくせいです。いちねんせいです。せんこうはえいぶんがくです。わたしはカナダじんです。

- note how 'Watashi wa' is not used everytime you give a bit of information
- it is rude/improper to use 'watashi wa' everytime you start a sentence
- use 'watashi wa' when giving new information/switching topics (such as in the example, I used 'watashi wa' to start my introduction into my student status; only when I switched to talking about my nationality, did I use 'watashi wa' again
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Greetings and Introductions ~ Language #1 [07 Dec 2005|03:05am]
Language #1 ~ Identifying someone or something, using ~は ~です

A: Affirmative

わたし は さんねんせい です。
I am a junior.

There are two parts to this sentence: [topic] and [comment]
[topic] consists of a noun (わたし) + particle (は)
[comment] consists of a noun (さんねんせい) + (copula) verb (です)

わたしは さねんせいです。


B: Negative

すずきさん は がくせい じゃありません。
Suzuki-san is not a student.

OR

すずきさん は がくせい じゃないです。
Suzuki-san is not a student.


examples:
わたしは いちねんせいです。 でも、たなかさんは いちねんせいじゃないです。
I am a freshman. But, Tanaka-san is not a freshman.

ロペスさんは メキシコじんです。 おとこのひとです。 がくせいです。
Lopez-san is Mexican. He is a man. He is a student.

モネさんは おんなの ひとです。 リーさんは おんなの ひとじゃありません。
Monet-san is a woman. Lee-san is not a woman.


○ the sentences X  は Y and X  は Y  じゃありません。/じゃないです。 are used to identify or characterize someone or something; they mean X is Y and X isn't Y

○ the copular verb [です] (and it's variants) link the subject and the predicate

○ じゃないです is more colloquial than じゃありません。

○ whereas the English verb to be sometime indicates location [ie- Tokyo is in Japan], です and  じゃありません do not

○ じゃないです and じゃありません do not change their forms according to the gender, number, and person (1st, 2nd, or 3rd) of the subject

examples:
わたしは だいがくせいです。
I am a college student.

ありさかさんは だいがくせいです。
Arisaka-san is a college student.

わたしたらは だいがくせいです。
We are college students


○ in Japanese, besides nouns, verbs, and adjectives, there are also particles

○ a particle is usually one hiragana, although sometimes it can be two

○ particles usually appear right after a noun or at the end of a sentence

○ their purpose is to assign a grammatical function to the preceding noun

○ some particles are similar to English prepositions
example:
noun + は (pronounced wa)
marks the topic of a sentence about which the rest of the sentence makes a comment

the comment (~です。) is more important than the topic because the topic represents information already known to the speaker and the listener (whereas the comment provides the listener with new information)


**
~じゃありません。-> ~jah/ah/ree/mah/sen
~じゃないです。 -> ~jah/nigh/dess
だいがく -> dye/gah/coo
がくせい -> gahck/say
**
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Greetings and Introductions ~ Dialogue [07 Dec 2005|02:38am]
Yosh! Alright! I hope everyone's memorized the new vocab so far?!? :p Just kidding. Here we have a little introduction conversation. Don't worry if you cannot understand all of it now; you will be able to by the end of this section! After each lesson and language point, come back and try to read through it again. At some point you should try to translate the conversation!!

Dialogue ~ はじめまして。Collapse )
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Greetings and Introductions Lesson #1 [06 Dec 2005|02:58am]
あいちつ と じこしょうかい 
(Greetings and Introductions)

-*-

たんご ~ 単語  「Essential Vocabulary」Collapse )
2 comments|post comment

Hiragana ~ Glides 「おわり」 [06 Dec 2005|02:07am]
Hiragana ~ Glides [おわり]

○ sounds containing a consonant and [y], such as [kya], [kyu], and [kyo], are called glides
○ glides are written with the hiragana containing the vowel [i] and a small や、 ゆ、 or よ

[the glides]Collapse )

examples:
こうちゃ - koucha - [black tea]
でんしゃ - densha - [train]
いしゃ - isha - [doctor]
しゃしん - shashin - [photo]
きんじょ - kinjyo - [neighbourhood]
ひょく - hyoku - [one hundred]
さんびょく - sanbyoku - [three hundred]
りょこう - ryokou - [trip]

the combination of a glide and a double consonant is possible
しゅっぱつ - shuppatsu - [departure]
ちょっかく - chokkaku - [right angle]
しゃっくり - shakkuri - [hiccup]
しょっき - shokki - [tableware]

add あ or う to make a long vowel
きょう - kyou - [today]
きゅうり - kyuuri - [cucumber]
にんぎょう - ningyou - [doll]
りょう - ryou - [dormitory]
びょうき - byouki - [sickness]
みょうじ - myouji - [last name]
しょうがつ - shougatsu - [New Year's Day]
ぎゅうにゅう - gyuunyuu - [milk]
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Useful Expressions #6 [05 Dec 2005|02:46am]
Useful Expressions #6 ~ Understanding simple requests and making simple requests

きいて ください。~ Please listen.
みて  ください。~ Please look (at it).
かいて ください。~ Please write.
よんで ください。~ Please read.
いって ください。~ Please say it./Repeat after me.


-*-


A - When you want someone to repeat what they've just said

もう いちどう いってください。
(Excuse me.) Please say it again
(literally, please say it one more time).


B - When you want someone to speak more loudly

おおきい こえで はなしてください。
Please speak loudly
(literally: please speak in a big voice).


C - When you want someone to speak slowly

ゆっくり いってください。
Please say it slowly.

ゆっくり はなしてください。
Please speak slowly.


* おおきい こえ ~ ookii koe ~ big voice (loudly)
* もう いちどう ~ mou ichidou ~ one more time; once again; repeat
* ゆっくり ~ yukkuri ~ slowly
* ください ~ kudasai ~ please
* はなして ~ hanashite ~ (to) speak
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Hiragana ~ Double consonants [05 Dec 2005|02:45am]
Hiragana ~ Double Consonants

○ some Japanese words have a very slight pause between two sounds
○ this pause is called a double consonant
○ the consonant of the second syllable has the duration of one syllable
○ double consonants are written with a small つ

examples
にっき - nikki - diary
がっき - gakki - musical instrument
がっこう - gakkou - school
きっぷ - kippu - ticket
きって - kitte - stamp
ねっとう - nettou - boiling water
りっぱ - rippa - fine; splendid
ざっし - zasshi - magazine
せっけん - sekken - soap
はっぱ - happa - leaf
こっか - kokka - national flag
しっぽ - shippo - tail
りっぱ がっこう - rippa gakkou - fine school
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Useful Expressions #5 [03 Dec 2005|04:53pm]
Useful Expressions #5 ~ Asking for Japanese words and English equivalents

A: Asking for the Japanese word
○ there are a number of ways to ask someone how to say a word or phrase in Japanese depending on the situation


01: If the object is close to you

これは にほんごで なんと いいますか。
What do you call this in Japanese?

example
がくせい: やまだせんせい、 これは にほんごで なんと いいますか。
Student: Professor Yamada, what do you call this in Japanese?

やまだ: 「ほん」と いいます。
Yamada: It's called hon.


○ to give the answer, say ~と いいます。
○ the marks 「」 are the equivalent of quotation marks in English


-*-


02: If the object is close to the person you are talking to, but at a distance from you

それは にほんごで なんと いいますか。
What do you call that in Japanese?

example
がくせい: やまだせんせい、 それは にほんごで なんと いいますか。
Student: Professor Yamada, what do you call that in Japanese?

やまだ: 「いす」と いいます。
Yamada: It's called isu.


-*-


03: If the object is at a distance from both you and the person you are talking to

あれは にほんごで なんと いいますか。
What do you call that (over there) in Japanese?

example
がくせい: やまだせんせい、 あれは にほんごで なんと いいますか。
Student: Professor Yamada, what do you call that (over there) in Japanese?

やまだ: 「でんわ」と いいます。
Yamada: It's called denwa.


○ これ、 それ、and あれ are used to refer only to objects... never to people


-*-


04: If you want to know the word for an object that is out of sight or that is an abstract concept

~は にほんごで なんと いいますか。
How do you say ~ in Japanese?

example
がくせい: やまだせんせい、 「love」は にほんごで なんと いいますか。
Student: Professor Yamada, how do you say love in Japanese?

やまだ: 「あい」と いいます。
Yamada: You say, ai



* ほん = book
* いす = chair
* でんわ = telephone




B: Asking for the meaning of a Japanese word or phrase

~って なんですか。
What does ~ mean?

example
がくせい: せんせい、「すいか」 って なんですか。
Student: Professor, what does suika mean?

せんせい: 「Watermelon」 です。
Teacher: It means watermelon.

○ to give the answer, say ~です。
○ The 、mark indicates a comma in Japanese
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Hiragana ~ Long vowels [02 Dec 2005|01:00pm]
Hiragana ~ Long Vowels

○ when two of the same vowel appear consecutively in a word, each of the vowels retains the same length and quality
○ the two vowels are pronounced as a continuous sound rather than as seperate vowels

○ in general, long vowels are written by adding:
あ to the hiragana with the vowel [a]
い to the hiragana with the vowel [i] or [e]
う to the hiragana with the vowel [u] or [o]

-> notice that い is added after the vowel [e] but is still pronounced as [e]
-> similarily, う is added after the [o] sound, but is pronounced [o]
-> some exceptions add え and お instead of い and う, respectively

Examples:

teacher ~ せんせい
student ~ がくせい
balloon ~ ふうせん
sugar ~ さとう
street ~ とおり
highschool ~ こうこう
ice ~ こおり
clock/watch ~ とけい

mother ~ おかあさん
grandmother ~ おばあさん
elder sister ~ おねえさん
younger sister ~ いもうと
father ~ おとうさん
grandfather ~ おじいさん
elder brother ~ おにいさん
younger brother ~ おとうと

big/large ~ おおきい
big balloon ~ おおきい ふうせん
small ~ ちいさい
small clock/watch ~ ちいさい とけい
2 comments|post comment

Useful Expressions #4 [02 Dec 2005|12:52pm]
Useful Expressions #4 ~ Thanking; apologizing; getting attention (some basic expressions of courtesy)

~ arigatou gozaimasu
~ ありがとう ございます。
Thank you.

~ sumimasen
~ すみません。
I am sorry.

~ anou, sumimasen
~ (あのう、) すみません。
{Eh,} Excuse me.

~ douitashimashite
~ どういたしまして。
You are welcome.

○ ございます as in おはよう ございます [ohayou gozaimasu] and ありがとう ございます [arigatou goziamasu] is a polite expression. Thus, おはよう [ohayou] and ありがとう [arigatou] are used in casual speech and are not used with older people or those of a higher social staus.
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Useful Expressions #3 [23 Nov 2005|09:34pm]
Useful Expressions #3 ~ Addressing people; saying goodbye

A: Forms of address
The Japanese always use a title to address people other than family members.

~ sensei (sen-say)
~せんせい
professor, teacher

~ sensei (sen-say)
~せんせい
Professor~

~ san
~さん
Mr./Mrs./Miss/Ms.

examples:
- たなかせんせい
Professor Tanaka

- やまださん
Mr./Mrs./Miss/Ms. Yamada



• せい in せんせい [sensei] is pronounced as a long [e]. Again, more about long vowels later on.

• It is customary to address an instructor simply as せんせい.

• The Japanese usually call others by their last names even when they have known them for a long time.
First names are used among family members and close friends.

• ~さん can be used for anyone except yourself.


-*-


B: Saying goodbye
The phrase for goodbye differs depending on who you are speaking with.

01 To instructors or social superiors:
shitsureishimasu (sheet-ray-shi-mass)
しつれいします。
Goodbye.

02 To friends:
jaa mata (jah mah-tah)
じゃあ、また。
See you later. (literally: Well then, again)

sayounara (sigh-yoh-nah-rah)
さようなら。
Goodbye.



• the literal translation of しつれいします [shitsurei shimasu] is I am committing a rudeness or I am disturbing you.

• When saying goodbye, you should nod your head slightly.

• さようなら [sayounara] is more often used when you do not expect to see the person for an extended period of time.
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Useful Expressions #2 [23 Nov 2005|09:29pm]
Useful Expressions #2 ~ Greeting someone


In Japanese, the phrases used for greeting someone vary, depending on the time of day.

A ~ in the morning (generally used up until 10AMish)

~ ohayoo gozaimasu (oh-high-oh goh-zy-eh-mass)
おはよう ございます。
Good morning/Hello.


B ~ in the afternoon

~ konnichiwa (koh-knee-chi-wah)
こんにちは
Good afternoon/Hello.


C ~ in the evening

~ konbanwa (con-bahn-wa)
こんばんは
Good evening/Hello.




• よう in おはよう ございます [ohayou gozaimasu] is pronounced as a long [o]. Long vowels will be covered a little later on.

• は in こんにちは [konnichiwa] and こんばんは [konbanwa] is pronounced [wa].

• In general, these phrases are used in both casual and formal situations except for おはよう ございます [ohayou gozaimasu], which has a less formal version, おはよう [ohayou].  おはよう [ohayou] may be used with friends or family members but is considered rude to use with superiors and in formal situations.

• こんにちは [konnichiwa] and こんばんは [konbanwa] are not used among family members.
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Useful Expressions #1 [23 Nov 2005|05:27pm]
Useful Expressions #1 ~ Introducing yourself and greeting someone

Introducing yourself.
~ hajimemashite. ________ desu. douzo yoroshiku.
(hah-gee-may-mash-tay. _____ dess. dough-zoh yoh-roh-shh-ku.)

はじめまして。 ____です。どうぞ よろしく。
How do you do? I am ____。 Pleased to meet you.
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Hiragana Lesson #11 + Hiragana Chart #2 [23 Nov 2005|04:06pm]
Now that you are familiar with the hiragana alphabet, it is now time to add on twenty five more characters. Now, I say twenty five and it may seem like it's a lot, but really, you are only using the hiragana that you already know [ka-ko, sa-so, ta-to, and ha-ho (with two variants)].

The first twenty hiragana utilize the tenten mark, as in が. It looks similar to a quotation mark, but the two little lines slant down to the right. Each set of hiragana are voiced with a different consonant when tenten marks are used.
[artpad is being stupid and won't save anything... so I am unable to use it for the time being]

k + " -> g
s + " -> z [there is an exception in this set]
t + " -> d [there is an exception in this set]
h + " -> b

b d z g
ba da za ga [a]
bi ji* ji* gi [i]
bu zu* zu gu [u]
be de ze ge [e]
bo do zo go [o]


* ~ shi [し] -> ji [じ] (if you are using an IME, this is typed as 'ji' or 'zi'.)
* ~ chi [ち] -> ji [ぢ] (if you are using an IME, this is typed as 'di'.)
* ~ tsu [つ] -> zu [づ] (if you are using an IME, this is typed as 'du'.)


The next five hiragana utilize the mark that looks like a degree sign -> °.
It is only used for the 'h' category of hiragana, and when it is used, the resulting sound is 'p'.

h + ° -> p

p
pa [a]
pi [i]
pu [u]
pe [e]
po [o]


Hiragana Chart #2 (ga ~ po)

p b d z g
[a]
[i]
[u]
[e]
[o]


Congratulations. You now have a good chunk of the Japanese alphabet under your belt.
Katakana we will learn a little later on.
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